A psychopath is conscienceless, narcissistic, manipulative, and unable to form real attachments to others. Psychopaths believe they are above the law and disregard prevailing mores. Robert Hare, a leading expert in the field, described psychopaths as “completely lacking in conscience and empathy.” He divided psychopaths into three categories: primary psychopaths, secondary psychopaths, and dissocial psychopaths.
The first category is considered a “true” psychopath because of certain identifiable biological and psychological factors that differ from the general population. A secondary psychopath offends because he or she is emotionally disturbed and possibly suffering from a severe inner conflict. The third category, dissocial psychopaths offend as a result of learned antisocial behavior from a subculture like a gang or severely dysfunctional family.
DSM Definition of Histrionic Personality Disorder.
HPD is with the big 3 abusive disorders, and I’m guessing there’s a reason. Both Histrionic and Borderline Personality Disorders can overlap because of how similar they are.
A pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the...following:
1. is uncomfortable in situations in which he or she is not the center of attention.
2. Interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior.
3. Displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions.
4. Consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to self.
5. Has a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail.
6. Shows self-dramatization, theatricality, and exaggerated expression of emotion.
7. is suggestible, i.e., easily influenced by others or circumstances.
8. Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are.
Unlike other personality disorder HPD separates with the fact that people who have HPD have astonishing good social skills, but the use of these skills is mostly to manipulate and get the spotlight of attention.
Some of the ways to notice a person with Histrionic Personality Disorder is:
The person dresses provocative or shows inappropriate behavior to get attention.
Desires the center of attention and feels uneasy if he or she is unable to get it.
Have sudden shifts of emotions.
Lacks sincerity in conversation.
Appears to act as if on stage.
Concerned too much about his or hers physical appearance.
Needs constant approval from others.
Easily influenced by others.
Sensitive to criticism.
Unable to finish things because they get bored and skip from one project onto another.
Don’t think before they act.
Make rash and unplanned decisions.
Lack of concern for others.
Have hard time keeping a steady relationship as they appear to have shallow feelings.
Causes of HPD are both inherited and developed. In most cases this is a learned behavior that grows into a disorder over the years. It may include lack of criticism or punishment when they were kids, or lack of positive parenting when due. Unpredictable attention given to a child without reason is also one of the most common causes, as the child cannot learn what is good and what is wrong and when he should get approval and when not.
Again, like with other personality disorders, people with HPD don’t think they need therapy. They are also very heavy when it comes to therapy as they strongly believe they don’t need one and make the therapy very difficult as they also don’t like routine. The only case when they seek professional help is when another problem appears, like depression.
Counseling is the normal type of treatment for Histrionic Personal Disorder. The goal is to dig up the causes and reasons why the person needs to act in that way, usually leading back to early childhood, also to learn how to relate in a positive way and form meaningful relationships. Medication is rarely used with HPD unless combined with other symptoms like anxiety and depression.
DSM Definition – Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Posted about this disorder but I know there are many who would love to see another post about it and here it is in brief.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder is a pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), need for admiration, and lack of empathy, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:
1. Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements).
2. Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love.
3. Believes that he or she is “special” and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions).
4. requires excessive admiration.
5. Has a sense of entitlement, i.e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations.
6. is interpersonally exploitative, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends.
7. Lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others.
8. is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her.
9. Shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes.
DSM Definition – Borderline Personality Disorder
Generally, Borderline Personality Disorder is spread throughout the pattern of instability. BPD is a mental illness during which a person has an unclear self-image, unstable moods and he or she is unable to maintain healthy, stable and close relationships with others.
Actually, the cause of borderline personality disorder is not acknowledged. But...it seems that BPD is more common in those people whose childhood or adolescence involved neglect, abandonment, separation, physical or sexual abuse, disruption, or mainly poor communication within their families.
A person who suffers from this disorder has labile interpersonal relationships characterized by instability. This pattern of interacting with others has persisted for years and is usually closely related to the person’s self-image and early social interactions.
The pattern is present in a variety of settings (e.g., not just at work or home) and often is accompanied by a similar liability (fluctuating back and forth, sometimes in a quick manner) in a person’s affect, or feelings. Relationships and the person’s affect may often be characterized as being shallow.
A person with this disorder may also exhibit impulsive behaviors and exhibit a majority of the following symptoms:
* Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.
* A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation
* Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self
* Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating)
* Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior
* Affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood (e.g., intense episodic dysphonia, irritability, or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days)
* Chronic feelings of emptiness
* Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (e.g., frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights)
* Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms
Here is a check list of the criteria of borderline disorder which is defined by the American Psychiatric Association in their diagnostic manual, DSM-IV-TR. Every person may experience some of these feelings from time to time. But the tendency of these warning sign may point out Borderline Personality Disorder.
*The first segments of testing is start with a complete physical checkup. Along with other usual tests, the doctor will draw blood test for toxins. Because certain substance abuse problems give signal of borderline personality disorder. But be careful that the side effects of some drugs may mimic borderline symptoms.
*Check whether your partner often exhibit paranoid tendencies which result from unrealistic perceptions of self and others. Watch out that your loved ones set undeserved importance on their self or they believe that the actions of others are always directed at them.
*Check it carefully whether your partner let everyone know about the flow of their emotions, especially when they are disappointed. Also see that self-injury or suicidal tendencies, all these behaviors are usually planned to get attention from others.
*Carefully notice whether your partner have any difficulties in maintaining their close relationships with others. Usually, excessive displays of feelings and emotions, like anxiety, anger, and irritability, frequently keep others at a distance. Such difficulties are due to impulsive behaviors which others find challenging to deal with like, indecisiveness, severe mood swings and constantly shifting thoughts about self-worth and self-identity.
*Everyday take a note of their moods. People suffered from borderline personality disorder tend to shift quickly from feeling high to low and they back again. It is not like bipolar disorder, in which moods last only a few hours of the day or at most one day.
*You have to judge whether your loved one is impulsive when it usually comes to sex, money, or substance abuse. Eating binges and reckless driving can also give signal of BPD. All these risky behaviors are generally caused by the aforesaid shifts in feelings, emotions and perceptions of self-image.
*Make proper notation about how your loved one sees himself or herself. Borderline personality affected has an unclear self-image that can swing from shamefulness to victimization. They repeatedly change homes, jobs, friends, partners, values and goals.
*Make your mind up if your partner suffers from "splitting." In this, for the one moment the BPD sufferer will admire and idolize you, but at the next time his or her feelings can unexpectedly change to disrespect and anger. They consider all the things in equal way whether in good or in bad, and never on neutral base.
*Properly gauge your partner's anger level in minor incidents. People having borderline personality disorder often get strongly angry in situations that don't deserve it. Sometimes they may even get physically, emotionally, and verbally abusive, so at that time protect yourself and children when necessary.
*Carefully notice that how your partner reacts whenever you go on a trip without him or her. People having borderline personality disorder get depressed or angry, when someone with whom they feel attached leave just for a short time. Even some change in plans can throw a BPD affected people off.
*Be alert and notice every time for your partner’s self-injury. Habitual suicidal threats, especially in case when you have to leave him alone or dissatisfy his or her expectations, give signal of borderline personality disorder.
How did you score?
For 2 Point - There are minimal chance of developing borderline personality disorder.
For 5 Points - Your partner may develop borderline personality disorder in the upcoming time. He/she needs to lower his/her expectations from other people, and energetically forming a stable identity by meeting different kinds of people and trying out different things. As well, control anger and avoid mood swings.
For 8 Points - Your partner possibly has BPD. Make an effort to learn more about this condition if you think your partner need help.
For 11 points - Probably, your partner has borderline personality disorder. Please contact to psychiatrist or psychologist to confirm about your diagnosis.
A person does not become abusive overnight; abuse is a learned behavior it was either taught to the individual through various practices and experiences in the family circle the family circle is the education ground for all children.
Children learn to be a husband or wife based on what their parents teach them or someone outside of the family who they look up to as a role model may have perpetuated abusive actions on the individual.
Through my research I have placed the perpetrators of abuse into two categories.
Generation perpetrators of Abuse
The abuser is daily living with the pain and shame of being abused and have been exposed to an abusive environment for years so the abuse has become a normal part of life for them. However they are aware that their behavior is wrong and they need help the simplest thing sets them off and they become abusive.
There can be no change until the perpetrator admits they need help, seek help, and continue on in treatment for this to be done the abuser must also acknowledge that they are weak and out of control, should they be confronted about their behavior they quickly become defensive and shift blame to anyone or anything. They hate to be corrected.
Narcissistic and Sadistic perpetrators of Abuse
The narcissistic and sadistic abuser has pleasure in propagating their abusive lifestyle all the while knowing it is wrong and eventually they reach to the point where they have accepted their way as the only way and the right way.
This type of abuser is very manipulative and charming they feel invigorated to know that everyone around them bows to them and walks on egg shells around them, they find utmost pleasure and heightened emotional ecstasy in abusive acts of violence and in the administering of pain and fear to their victims.
These abusers will commit murder and justify their acts of violence with charm as they see nothing wrong with what they have done; these persons cannot safely live with other people in a family unit as they will continue to destroy other persons.
Abuse does not get better with time–it only gets worse and will lead to death.